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Evolution of Bats

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1. A place where males of certain bird or mammal species assemble during breeding season to engage in competitive and territorial displays in order to attract females.[[File:Grackles_lekking.jpg|thumb|left|Wikipedia photo of male Great-tailed Grackles on a lek. Photograph by Michael J. Plagens, 2007.]]
 
1. A place where males of certain bird or mammal species assemble during breeding season to engage in competitive and territorial displays in order to attract females.[[File:Grackles_lekking.jpg|thumb|left|Wikipedia photo of male Great-tailed Grackles on a lek. Photograph by Michael J. Plagens, 2007.]]
   
"Lekking" is the gathering of males at a lek site. Behavior associated with lekking often consists of ritualized signals to other males in attempts to display dominance or to females to display fitness for breeding.
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"Lekking" is the gathering of males at a lek site. Behavior associated with lekking often consists of ritualized signals to other males in attempts to display dominance or to females to display fitness for breeding.[[File:Black Grouse Lek|thumb|left|380px|This YouTube video provides a glimpse into a springtime Black Grouse lek in Norway.]]
 
Although within leks there may only be on one male who gets to mate, the other males in the lek may also benefit. In a study of wild turkeys, it was found that the many of turkeys in the leks were related-- in fact, a mixture of full and half siblings. A benefit of the lek is that the dominant male was able to produce (on average) 6.1 offspring, as compared to wild turkeys who did not lek who produced (on average) 0.9 offspring. Because of this drastic increase in the number of offspring that can be produced, and because the males in the lek often share genes, this can be an example of kin selection. Although every male does not mate, by helping a relative get a mate, and thus produce more offspring than if he was not part of a lek, more of their shared genes can be passed on to future generations. This increases the unsuccessful male's inclusive fitness. (Ricklefs, 2008).
 
 
Ricklefs, R. (2008). ''The Economy of Nature'' (6th ed.). New York, NY: W.H. Freeman and Company. 
 
 
[[File:Black Grouse Lek|thumb|left|380px|This YouTube video provides a glimpse into a springtime Black Grouse lek in Norway.]]
 
   
 
[[File:Long-tailed_widowbird.jpg|thumb|Male long-tailed widowbird]]
 
[[File:Long-tailed_widowbird.jpg|thumb|Male long-tailed widowbird]]
 
 
==Sexual Ornamentation==
 
==Sexual Ornamentation==
 
<p class="p1">Sexual ornamentation is a characteristic that attracts a mate or stimulates reproduction. This ornamentation is not limited to morphological features, such as wattles, antlers, color, etc. but may also include song and display, such as male grouses on lekking grounds (Badyaev, 2004) and bugling and urine odor among rutting elk or wapiti. Sexual ornamentation also applies to plants that attract pollinators through the development of flowers (Badyaev, 2004). </p>
 
<p class="p1">Sexual ornamentation is a characteristic that attracts a mate or stimulates reproduction. This ornamentation is not limited to morphological features, such as wattles, antlers, color, etc. but may also include song and display, such as male grouses on lekking grounds (Badyaev, 2004) and bugling and urine odor among rutting elk or wapiti. Sexual ornamentation also applies to plants that attract pollinators through the development of flowers (Badyaev, 2004). </p>
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