Speciation is also known as macro evolution and involves the splitting of a single evolutionary lineage into two or more genetically independent ones.
Speciation is the process of a group of one species acquiring new characteristics, eventually creating an entirely new species. A well known example of this are the Galapagos Islands, or Darwin's, finches. Over millions of years, each species of Galapagos finch developed a unique beak that is especially adapted for the kinds of food it eats.
There are four main types of Speciation: Allopatric, Peripatric, Parapatric, and Sympatric.
-Allopatric speciation is when the new species is formed from a geographic barrier isolating populations.
-Peripatric speciation is when the new species is from a small
population occuring at the edge of a larger population.
-Parapatric speciation iswhen the new species is a continuously distributed population.
-Sympatric speciation is when the new species within the range of the ancestral population.
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Source: National Geographic Education. http://education.nationalgeographic.com/education/encyclopedia/speciation/?a